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Med. Weter. 73 (2), 118-123, 2017

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Rafał Sapierzyński, Tomasz Huć, Michał Czopowicz, Urszula Jankowska, Dariusz Jagielski, Katarzyna Kliczkowska – Klarowicz
Acute leukemias in dogs: Analysis of 31 cases.
The aim of the present study was to analyse epidemiological, cytological, laboratory and clinical data from canine acute leukemia (AL) cases. The study was conducted from 2009 to 2015, and included 2384 dogs undergoing cytological examination in two veterinary practices in Warsaw. The analysis included dogs in which bone marrow cytology revealed acute leukemia, regardless of its subtype. Data on breed, age, sex, as well as clinical signs and results of haematological examination were collected for every dog. Breed predisposition to acute leukemia was calculated by statistical methods on the basis of the theoretical distribution of canine breeds in Poland. Acute leukemia was diagnosed in 31 dogs (24.7%) undergoing bone marrow cytology, that is, in 1.3% of all the dogs examined by cytology during the study period. The disease was diagnosed mainly in adults, and a strong predisposition was found particularly in German shepherds and Golden retrievers. The median duration of clinical signs from the onset to diagnosis was 14 days. The clinical signs were mostly non-specific (apathy, recurrent fever, lack of appetite), whereas lymphadenomegaly or/and splenomegaly were observed more seldom. Hematology revealed neoplastic leukocytosis in 75% of dogs, whereas anemia and trombocytopenia were observed in 86% and 85% of patients, respectively. Regardless of the leukemia subtype, prognosis was poor. In conclusion, it can be stated that according to current knowledge on canine acute leukemias, bone marrow cytology based on routine staining methods is sufficient for correct diagnosis in a vast majority of cases.
Key words: dog, cytology, acute leukemia, bone marrow